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Landfill OperationsTana Compaction Methodology

TANA Compaction Methodology

Let’s look at some waste compaction theory first. Compaction is based on the following factors:

1.   Weight of the machine

2.      Number of compacting teeth 

3.   Drum or wheel diameter

4.      Drum or wheel width

5.     Waste type

6.   Amount of incoming waste


Header FB (kopio)


1. Machine weight influences on how deep the compaction goes. There are not many studies conducted regarding the weight distribution and effect on compaction. However, a bigger machine can handle more capacity and reach wanted compaction rate faster. When comparing the compaction within the same weight class as Tana the costs are lowest in kg per m3

3. Drum or wheel diameter: Big diameter of the drum means covering a larger area of the top surface which causes the machine to float on top of the waste. As the pan area only causes high top surface compaction, the four-wheeler needs to create a lot smaller compaction layer to achieve the same compaction level as the Tana full-width drum. Smaller Tana compaction wheel diameter maximizes the machine ground pressure and maximized sinking of the machine. Sinking will cause the material to compact! Tana has conducted studies about the right compaction drum diameter over the past 40 years and found the right size to perform compaction on elastic materials such as MSW, plastics, mixed waste, etc. NOTICE: Tana compacts thicker layers because of the high number of teeth.


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5. The incoming waste type also has an effect on the final kg/m3. In some countries like Northern and Western Europe the waste is typically pretreated; e.g. the amount of organic material is minimized. In others like USA and Australia or some Asian countries the amount of organic waste can be extremely high. This obviously will have effect on what kind of compaction rate can be achieved. In any case TANA guarantees a minimum of 10 % better compaction rate.


6. The amount of incoming waste. If we simplify a lot it is possible to compact waste with any machine as long as the time spent does not matter. But because turnaround time is important and the incoming waste flow is constant it is necessary to achieve the highest compaction rate as quickly as possible with as few passes and low costs as possible. The weight of the machine in relation to the amount of waste, number of crushing teeth and the drum design are significant factors affecting this. The bigger the amount of incoming waste the better results Tana will achieve against any four-wheeled machine. Tana can compact a thicker layer and achieve a minimum of 10 % higher compaction rate faster than others.



TANA E520 (kopio) (kopio)









2. There are two different types of pressures at compaction: waste compacting and waste escaping pressure. Compaction teeth are pressing the material deeper and the pan around the drum/wheel is causing ground pressure (together with the teeth). Ground pressure only compacts the top surface as the teeth compacts the waste deeper. Finally the machine weight distributed on all these teeth will cause the whole drum or wheel to sink in to the waste and cause compaction. The more teeth are in contact with the waste the better.


BigFoot telakuva (kopio) (kopio)


4. Drum or wheel width: Being elastic the waste wants to escape to all possible directions while it is being compacted. Too small width of the wheel will allow an extrusion at both ends and between the wheels. This will result in the already compacted area to become again non-compacted. Tana drum design is developed in a way that it will gain compaction with one pass and extrusion will happen only at both ends of drum. With Tana you may next time overlap this extrusion area to achieve a nice 100% compacted surface and prevent any extrusion of the waste.


Surface pressure

> Read a customer evidence story here